Thread – Part 1

Aside from fabric, the next most important component for sewing is thread. There are many varieties from multiple manufacturers, but the importance of thread is not always appreciated. Good quality thread can make your sewing easy and enjoyable, but poor quality, cheap thread can not only be a nightmare to sew with, it can cause machine problems.

Perhaps the most popular variety of thread is cotton. Quilters value it above other types because it is made from natural fiber that works well with cotton fabrics and batting. Egyptian cotton is prized for thread, due to the fact that the fibers are longer. This makes for a smoother thread, with less lint. Unfortunately once it’s made into thread it is difficult to discover the source of the cotton and a label of “Egyptian Cotton” is not a guarantee that what your getting is really that. An easy way to judge the quality of cotton thread is to pull a foot or so off the spool and examine it closely. Good quality thread will be smooth with very few “whiskers” showing along its length. If you see a lot of fibers or lumps of fiber along the thread you should give it a pass. Lots of loose fiber on cotton thread tends to shed and build up in the machine. When used in the bobbin, these fibers will ball up behind the tension spring in the bobbin case, forcing it out to the point that tension is reduced.

Some technicians will simply tighten the bobbin tension to overcome the problem, sometimes to the point that the tension screw is fully tight against the spring. If you find that you are suddenly getting bobbin thread pulled up to the top, look very carefully at the bobbin case, around the 8 o’clock position. If you see a small bit of fluff there you can gently tease it out with a small needle. That will restore normal tension. If you have had your tension “fixed” by a technician, without having the thread ball removed, you can usually set it back to where it was by looking at the slotted tension adjustment screw on the bobbin case. At the factory this screw is secured by red paint, so it doesn’t change while you are sewing. To put the tension back to factory settings just turn the screw so the broken edges of the paint line up again.

When I was growing up my mother would always use Coats & Clark thread because of the quality. Sadly, like so many other industries, Coats & Clark is now made offshore and the quality has dropped badly. We refused to carry it in our store. However even C & C is better than the Walmart branded thread sold by the store of the same name. It’s very cheap, and in my opinion, very bad.

Your thread choices from local sources may be limited, but thread is not a good place to try to economize. If a project is worth doing, it’s worth spending a little extra to get good thread that will last a long time, and be good for your machine. While you may not have good choices available locally, you can buy just about any thread online.

While we are not affiliated in any way, we like Superior thread. They deserve the name, as their thread is top quality. Superior also has some very informative web pages that provide everything you could ever want to know about thread. If your local dealer does not stock their thread you can order it online.

Recently we polled readers of our Janome list on for their favorite thread brands. The results of that poll are available here. We will address other types of thread in future posts.

What’s that noise?

Every sewing machine has its own particular set of noises that you hear while using the various functions. When we operated a sewing machine dealership we chose Janome because they made some of the quietest machines on the market. What sounds they do make tends to stay relatively constant through the years of operation. Most owners become used to the normal sounds and are alerted whenever the sound changes. Those who do machine embroidery sometimes employ baby monitors so they can leave the room during a long embroidery. When the sound changes it’s a sign something is wrong and they can hopefully get back in time to prevent a tragedy.

The most common abnormal sound is the one that occurs when the thread is either out of the take-up lever, or there is no tension. Every stitch that wraps around the bobbin case will stay ender the needle plate. This creates the dreaded “bird’s nest” effect. The sound is a loud chunk-chunk-chunk as each stitch further inhibits the hook from making more. If the machine is stopped quickly, damage is usually limited to cutting off the excess thread and rethreading. Unfortunately if more than a few stitches are taken in this mode, the accumulated thread and powerful motor of the machine can lift the bobbin case out of its resting place in the hook race. That allows it to spin past the stopper. At that point it can be impaled by the hook, which usually stops the machine with a “Stopped for safety” message. It also will seriously damage the bobbin case, leaving a deep gouge on the bottom. Often when the bobbin case spins out it will be stabbed by the needle, often completely through the case. This type of damage can also damage the hook race itself, which leads to other noises.

After a bobbin case incident you may hear a rhythmic clicking as you sew. This click is often caused by a hole that was put through the bobbin case by the needle. It creates a small bump on the bottom of the case, and each stitch will catch briefly, causing the click.  If the bobbin case is undamaged, a burr on the hook race can also cause a clicking. This type of damage is hard to see without a strong light and magnification. Your dealer should have the tools to remove minor burrs and scratches (#OILSTONE), but in severe cases a new hook race may be needed.

Bobbin rattling is a common complaint. As you sew the bobbin seems to jump around and rattle in the case. Often this is because the wrong bobbin is being used. Many people have old Singer class 66 bobbins inherited from old machines. They are the right diameter, but they are shorter than the standard Janome class 15 bobbin. That gives them extra room to bounce around. Another place that can induce rattles is the white plastic disc that is in the hook race under the bobbin case. A needle that is not tightened sufficiently can fall out and make nasty gouges in the disc. Every stitch has to pass over it, so if it is damaged it will cause a lot of jerking and bouncing of the bobbin. I’ve worked on machines where that disc was so damaged that it was in pieces. It’s inexpensive and easy to replace.

I’ve already mentioned the hook race as a noise source. If you have noise, but cannot find the source, it’s very likely to be the hook race. One really insidious problem that took me a long time to find is needle strikes on the rim of the hook race, the little “shelf” that the bobbin case rides on. If a needle hits that area it can make a pit with raised edges. Those edges act like a file, slowly grinding off a very fine dust from the bottom of the bobbin case. That dust causes a lot of extra friction. In sufficient quantities it can cause the machine to emit a very loud squawking sound. It can be silence for a short while with a drop of oil, though that can stain fabric, so use caution. In the long term the hook race must be polished or replaced. With this problem the bottom of the bobbin case will have a telltale white or gray line around the edge where the burr was grinding on it.

New embroidery machine owners sometimes complain about a squeaking while the machine is stitching out a design. This is usually not a problem, but is due to the belts of the embroidery mechanism settling in and adjusting to the parts they are attached to. In this problem the squeak is usually more prominent in one direction of embroidery than the other, for example left-right as opposed to front-back. It will diminish greatly over time as the parts settle in.

The last noise I will address is another tough-to-diagnose one. As you are sewing the machine makes a noise that sounds like a chirping bird. Inside the machine there is a pulley that is used to adjust the tension of the timing belt, which joins the upper shaft to the lower shaft for synchronous operation. Over a period of years and/or hard use, the bracket that the pulley is mounted on may slowly bend a little. This can cause the timing belt to drift away from its normal position so that it rubs on the bobbin winder clutch. That rubber-on-plastic rubbing makes the sound of a bird chirp. Your technician can fix it by replacing the pulley mounting bracket, though I have often been able to just bend the bracket a bit to make it line up again.

After you have had your machine long enough to know what it normally sounds like, you will notice if it starts to sound differently. In that case you should take it to your dealer, sooner rather than later. This post may serve as a guide to help you isolate the problem with the technician so you can restore it to its former silent glory.


To better focus our video-making efforts, I recently posted three questions on our email list:

  1. What is the biggest problem you have with your machine?
  2. What is the biggest problem you have with the Windows software that came with your machine?
  3. What is the biggest problem you have with the software on your iPad? (This applies mainly to the Memory Craft 15000, though the Skyline S9 also has iPad software.)

The replies were varied, particularly with machine problems. We’ll address those another time. Responses regarding the Windows software were also varied, but the majority came down to how to use the software, as well as fear of doing something wrong. This is not surprising, as most Windows programs have a lot of features with different menus and icons. Gone are the days of a thick printed manual accompanying software. These days you might get an electronic manual in the form of a PDF document, but usually it’s just a greatly abbreviated Help file. To make matters worse, most of the Windows software is written by engineers who don’t sew. These programs are built with attention paid to ease of writing, which does not always translate to ease of use. To make matters worse, nearly everyone has heard a horror story about someone who hit the wrong key at the wrong time and wiped out their entire computer. Most of these stories are more myth than fact, but nearly everyone has experienced a crash of some sort while using Windows. Microsoft has created a wealth of software tools for programmers to use, but there is no established set of standards for how those tools are used. Consequently even common tasks are done differently in different programs and there are usually many ways to do the same thing, not all of which are obvious. As Windows has evolved, it has added many more features, further increasing the complexity of using it. This won’t change, so most people will stop upgrading once they’ve mastered using a particular set of software. We will continue to make helpful videos with each new release, but we don’t expect to see much change in the ease of use of Windows software.

While Apple’s iPhone was the first touch-operated device, they actually were working on what became the iPad. Making the decision to change gears and release a phone first has proven to be a brilliant choice. The iOS operating system has, like Windows, evolved over the years, but unlike Windows, it’s more focused on ease of use. Steve Jobs characterized it as “the computer for the rest of us”, meaning those without technical skills and experience. Toward that goal, Apple has spent a lot of time and money on usability. Programmers have a very broad array of tools to use, but Apple also maintains a set of “human interface” guidelines to ensure that apps use those tools as they were intended. Every app must be approved before it goes into the App Store, and attention is paid to how easy an app is to use.

The result is that you can hand an iPad to a 2-year-old grandchild and within minutes they will be happily using it. Why, then, is it so hard for fully mature adults to use iPads? I think the primary reason is fear. The grandchild has no idea how much the device cost or what could go wrong. She just tries things without regard to what will happen, learning as she goes. Adults are afraid of “crashing” the iPad, or making a mistake that will cause all their work to disappear. Much of this fear stems from using desktop computers. Unlike a desktop, each app on an iPad is restricted to its own space. While it is still possible for a poorly written app to crash, it won’t take other apps, or the iPad itself, down with it. Well designed apps not only have built-in help, they often provide hints for what to do as they are used. By making the operating system stable and resilient, hard crashes are extremely rare, and even those can be recovered from quickly. Backup has been built into the devices, so it takes place automatically. It’s even possible to have the backups stored remotely, protecting the data from just about anything.

So what’s the lesson here? It’s simple, really. When approaching a touch-enabled device like the iPad, just release your inner child. Touch things to see what happens. Try things. Get to know the standard icons, like Search (search.jpg), Share (share.jpg), or Delete (delete.png). Well-written apps will use standard icons to clearly present common functions. While some apps will still be more complex than necessary (I’m looking at you AcuDesign!), most will separate features for simplicity. Don’t let your fear of technology stop you from learning how to use the tools it provides. If you find yourself using the often-repeated phrase “I don’t do computers!” you are really hiding. In these times we have to keep learning, just to get through day to day activities. It’s worth the time and effort to learn the tools, and you will probably enjoy the process. And, yes, we will continue to make videos to ease your journey!

Tools of Creation Poll

We’re working on ways to better serve the makers in our community. Thanks so much for helping us by completing this short poll!

Note – the poll uses cookies, solely to ensure only one vote per person. Nothing is being kept to track or identify you in any way.

Machine Problems

In servicing machines for 25 years I saw a LOT of problems. Some were machine faults, some were caused by users, and some were just plain weird. I also get a lot of email from machine owners who are frustrated with problems that have been presented to their dealer multiple times, but never get fixed. This post is aimed to help prevent that.

Nothing makes anyone more angry than to take something, anything, to a repair center, leave it, wait for it, pick it up, and take it home, and then find out that the original problem is still there. This happens to all of us sooner or later, but why? To understand that we need to step to the other side of the counter to the technician’s bench. Let’s look at the process.

The machine is presented to someone other than the technician. She’s busy repairing machines. So someone, probably a salesperson, takes the machine, notes your name and phone number, and hopefully a brief description. Hours or days later the tech picks up the machine and looks at whatever was written down. She’s already seen 7 machines before getting to yours. Three of them appeared to be working fine. Two were just in for cleaning. One needed parts and had to be set aside to wait for them, and one has been badly abused and is waiting for the owner to authorize what will be an expensive repair.

You’ve brought your machine in for a message that pops up from time to time, stopping the machine dead in its tracks. Sometimes the message goes away and sometimes it comes up every few minutes. It’s nearly impossible to get anything meaningful done. So you brought it in. Now it’s on the bench and the tech is running a bit of stitching through. It’s working fine, with no messages. Ten minutes later, still good. Now the tech has 23 other machines to get through before the weekend. She can’t sit here for an hour sewing without the boss getting mad. The only option is to note NPF (No Problem Found) on the ticket and send it home. She’s annoyed, you are now branded as a possible crank, and you’re going to be really mad when you have the problem again.

Understand that intermittent problems are the absolute hardest ones to resolve. If a technician cannot see or hear the problem, it’s almost certain that it cannot be fixed. How do you deal with that? In cases of messages on screen, take a picture of the message. Print it out and on that page note the stitch or design you were using. If it’s a design, make sure it’s stored in the machine. Include fabric that’s close to what you were using when it happened. Write in a few words exactly what you did and what happened, step by step. Make sure that your picture and notes are included with the machine when you submit it for repair. This will improve the chances of the problem being found. Leave the machine threaded with the same thread you were using and the same bobbin in the bobbin case. If possible, try to list the steps needed to recreate the problem. If you can’t recreate it, the technician won’t be able to either.

Sometimes a problem only shows up after a period of time. Electronic components that work cold, when the machine is first turned on, may fail after use has made them warm to hot. Let the technician know that. There were some problems that I had to deal with in our store that were like that. I put a brick on the foot control and let the unthreaded machine run while I did other work. This would get me to the fail point without wasting any time.

It’s important to know what to bring in with your machine. Don’t bring the book! If the repair technician needs the book you need a different technician. We were Janome-only dealers, so I insisted on the minimum amount of stuff with each machine. Before instituting that policy I had a customer claiming we had lost her accessory box and all the feet in it. We had no way of knowing, so we had to make an expensive replacement. Multi line dealers will likely want the cord and foot control. The foot control could be important if the problem involves it in any way. If in doubt, ask them first. Please put your name on everything, even the machine. Write it on painter’s tape, which is easy to remove. Make a note of the serial number on your machine. Getting the wrong machine back is extremely rare, and may not even be noticed, so having the serial number gives you a way to detect it.

Software problems are an entirely different animal. Understand that your dealer is not any more of a computer expert than you are, in most cases. They will have to call Janome, and ultimately Janome may have to call you. Because of the limited tech support at Janome, this process can take a lot of time. Before presenting the problem to your dealer, try Google. Search for the error message you got, if appropriate, or the condition you are experiencing. Note that if you get an “exception” message in Windows, with a long string of numbers, it is of no use to carefully note those numbers or even take a screenshot. Just substitute the word “crash” for all that. If Google fails to turn up anything useful, post your problem to our email list. Be specific and detailed! Things like “I got an error message” (What was it?) or “Program X won’t open” (What happens?) are so vague that nobody can help. Be detailed as to what you were trying to do and what happened. Again remember that if your problem cannot be duplicated, it probably can’t be solved.

Janome sewing machines are some of the most reliable on the market. This is great, but when a problem does occur it is somewhat jarring. Some dealers will take an adversarial approach: “What did you do to it?” This puts you on the defensive, and I’ve noticed that many of the problem posts I’ve seen show that the poster assumes that she has done something to cause the problem. That’s especially true on computer problems. Most of the time she did nothing wrong. The problem is due to something outside of her control, like a component failure, a mechanical problem, or, in the case of software, a program bug.

I hope you never have a problem with your machine or computer, but if (OK, when) you do please refer to this post for your best course of action!

Computer or iPad?

Do you need a full Windows computer or can you do everything you need with an iPad? Let me state from the outset that by “iPad” I mean the iPad tablet made by Apple, NOT a tablet that uses Android. Yes, all of the Android tablets are cheaper because they were designed to be lower cost than the iPad. I’ve explained why I don’t write apps for Android in a previous post. I don’t recommend Android tablets for those reasons, and also because the iOS operating system used by iPads is far more secure than Android.

When Steve Jobs introduced the iPad in 2010 he made the point that most people don’t need the power of a desktop computer for their daily needs. The iPad provides email, web browsing, word processing, calendar management, messaging, and even video. It’s extremely portable, even more so than a laptop computer, and less expensive. The case for a full computer comes down to the need for a large screen, more processing power, or high resolution graphics. In the world of sewing software this is mainly limited to embroidery digitizing software.

Since readers of this blog are almost entirely sewing enthusiasts let’s address how an iPad might be used. The main use of computers in sewing is for embroidery. Designs can be purchased as digital files and sent to machines for stitching. Some machines, such as the Janome Memory Craft 15000 and the Janome Skyline S9, have built-in WiFi. Janome has software that can transmit designs directly from an iPad to the machine. If you don’t have a WiFi-enabled machine you can still use an iPad to manage designs. Nearly all machines with embroidery capability  can accept USB flash drives. USB flash drives with the iPad-compatible Lightning connector are readily available and can be used to move designs from iPad to machine. There are also numerous flash drives that have built-in WiFi and apps that allow designs to be sent to the flash drive wirelessly.

If you have one of the Janome models with WiFi there are a number of free Janome apps that can be used on iPads. Other apps, such as DRAWings Snap and StitchBuddy, provide support for most common embroidery formats. It should be noted that the Janome AcuDesign app is very similar to DRAWings Snap, and supports designs in all popular embroidery formats. The cost of the AcuDesign app includes design editing, which makes it the cheaper of the two.

If you don’t need design editing there are other embroidery apps available, such as the free AirStitch app. This allows designs to be saved in the iPad, as well as DropBox or the AirStash wireless USB devices. All common embroidery formats are supported.

It’s also possible to purchase designs on the iPad. You can have them emailed or download them directly from the website. Online designs are nearly always packaged in ZIP files. To unpack those you will need the free Documents app by Readdle. Once unzipped you can copy the designs to other apps installed on your iPad.

Since the release of the first iPad Apple has traditionally updated the device every year. The recent Pro models offer an optional keyboard that doubles as a cover, as well as the Pencil for drawing. iPad apps have also evolved to be very sophisticated. A good example of this is the Affinity Photo app from Serif. It offers an astounding array of tools for editing photographs, rivaling those of desktop and laptop computers.

Although the iPad is the ultimate in convenient tools, there are some downsides. The main one is probably the screen, which is covered in glass. If you use your finger to operate it, you will quickly fill the screen with smudges. A microfiber cloth is essential for periodic cleaning, although using the Apple Pencil or third party stylus can avoid the fingerprint problem. Dropping an iPad is potentially dangerous, though a number of third party repair shops now offer glass replacement. Finally there is the battery, which is built-in and non-replaceable. At some point it will no longer charge, and the device can then only be used when connected to a power source. This is not too different from a desktop computer, which will eventually need a new hard drive, or a laptop that will need a new battery and/or hard drive. Cheap Windows computers also tend to be largely plastic with minimal memory and processors, so they need to be replaced frequently. In that respect the life of an iPad is at least as long as a cheap Windows PC, if not longer.

To decide between an iPad and a Windows computer you should list all the functions that you need to have available. Use Google to search for apps for those functions. Add the cost of the software you will need to the cost of the iPad, and compare it to the cost of a computer with the cost of the software you will require. This will make it easier to compare. You can also query Facebook and Yahoo groups to get opinions from those who use iPads versus computers.

When purchasing an iPad you will be presented with choices. Some, like screen size and finish, are just personal preferences, but storage size is something to consider carefully. The working memory, comparable to RAM in a conventional computer, is the same in all models. The storage memory is literally that; memory used for storing documents, mail, photos, movies, etc. Price goes up with storage capacity, and you can’t add more storage later if you find you need it. Apple provides 5 GB of iCloud storage free to each user and you can add more for nominal cost. You can also get storage from apps such as Amazon Drive or Microsoft OneDrive. All of these external storage options require a WiFi connection to access, so how and where you use your iPad will factor into your decision. I generally don’t buy an iPad with the minimum storage, just because I want the convenience of having all my files available whether I have WiFi available or not.

Hopefully this will help you decide which device to get for your sewing needs. Questions can be posted to the Online Sewing discussion group.

Support your LQS

Not everyone is fortunate enough to have a good local quilt shop (LQS). It’s not a high profit business, and it takes far more money than you might imagine to start one. We’ve seen the fabric business, which we depend on for our hobby, dwindle down as more and more of the traditional sources drop fabric from their inventory. Local quilt shops and online sources are now the last outpost for good fabric. Sure, the “big box” stores like JoAnn and Hobby Lobby have fabric, but the overall quality is seldom as good as that found in your local shop.

Quilting has kept the fabric industry alive, but like so many industries it has moved offshore. Fabric, thread, and related textiles are now imported. Factories that made these goods have closed, frequently taking down the “mill” town they were in. The dollars spent on fabrics and thread are now flowing out of the country, contributing to the large imbalance of trade between the US and other countries, with China being the primary beneficiary.

In attempting to level the playing field our president has proposed putting tariffs on a lot of products, including some of the textiles we rely on for quilting. This puts our local quilt shops in peril, as discussed in this article. Good fabric is almost never cheap, and prices will have to rise. Few, if any, quilters are wealthy and the higher prices will almost certainly impact the revenue of these shops. As mentioned in the article, some may have to close.

If your city is large enough to have at least one quilt shop, then there are likely enough quilters that you also have quilting clubs or informal groups. You can help. Ask the owner of your favorite LQS to join members for coffee and a frank discussion. She can tell you what she thinks will happen as a result of the tariffs, and what it will mean for her business. Now would be a good time to buy a little extra thread that you know you will need eventually. Stock up on stabilizers. Get some patterns or kits to work on through the winter months. Summer is a slow time for quilt shops and extra dollars are very welcome.

If the situation is especially dire consider a Save Our Shop (SOS) event within your quilting group. Most quilters may have a small (cough, cough) stash of fabric. This is frequently the source of “discussions” with your significant other, and said other doesn’t know about the stuff you’re storing with a friend. Have a sale within your group, selling off fabric you know you won’t live long enough to use, and give the proceeds to your LQS. There are no government subsidies for quilt shops, so if it comes down to needing a cash infusion to survive, you are probably the last line of defense. Get creative and let your shop owner know that you support her!

Here’s a shout-out to the Quilt Shop of Deland, Florida. We were able to visit them last week and happily left with a new kit and some fabulous fabrics.